The following are publications detailing research results from the UMBS Forest Carbon Cycle Research Program:

Toomey M, Friedl M, Frolking S, Hufkens K, Klosterman K, Sonnentag O, Baldocchi DD, Bernacchi CJ, Bohrer G, Brzostek E, Burns SP, Coursolle C, Hollinger DY, Margolis HA, McCaughey H, Monson RK, Munger JW, Pallardy S, Phillips RP, Torn M, Wharton S, Zeri M, Richardson AD (accepted 2014) Greenness indices from digital cameras predict the timing and seasonal dynamics of canopy-scale photosynthesis. Ecological Applications


Chatziefstratiou EK, Velissariou V, Bohrer G (2014) Resolving the effects of aperture and volume restriction of the flow by semi-porous barriers using large-eddy simulations. Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 152(3), 329–348, doi: 10.1007/s10546-014-9923-5

Fu D, Chen B, Zhang H, Wang J, Black TA, Amiro B, Bohrer G, Bolstad P, Coulter R, Rahman F, Dunn A, McCaughey H, Meyers T, Verma S (2014) Estimating landscape net ecosystem exchange at high spatial-temporal resolution based on Landsat data, an improved upscaling model framework, and eddy covariance flux measurements. Remote Sensing of Environment, 141, 90–104, doi: 10.1016/j.rse.2013.10.029

He L, Ivanov VY, Bohrer G, Maurer KD, Vogel CS, Moghaddam M (2014) Effects of fine-scale soil moisture and canopy heterogeneity on energy and water fluxes in a northern temperate mixed forest. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 184, 243–256, doi: 10.1016/j.agrformet.2013.10.006

Keenan TF, Gray J, Friedl M, Toomey M, Bohrer G, Hollinger DY, Munger JW, O’Keefe J, Schmid HP, Wing IS, Yang B, Richardson AD (2014) Net carbon uptake has increased through warming-induced changes in temperate forest phenology. Nature Climate Change, 4, 596–604, doi: 10.1038/nclimate2253

Keenan TF, Hollinger DY, Bohrer G, Dragoni D, Munger JW, Schmid HP, Richardson AD (2014) Air pollution and forest water use, reply. Nature, 507(7491), E2–E3, doi: 10.1038/nature13114

Matheny AM, Bohrer G, Stoy PC, Baker I, Black A, Desai A, Dietze M, Gough CM, Ivanov VY, Jassal P, Novick K, Schäfer KVR, Verbeeck H (2014) Characterizing the diurnal patterns of errors in the prediction of evapotranspiration by several land-surface models: an NACP analysis. Journal of Geophysical Research–Biogeosciences, 119(7), 1458–1473, doi: 10.1002/2014JG002623

Miaogen S, Tangy H, Richardson AE, Gough CM, Desai A, Chen J (2014) Can EVI-derived land surface phenology be used as a surrogate for phenology of canopy photosynthesis? International Journal of Remote Sensing, 35(3), 1162–1174, doi: 10.1080/01431161.2013.875636

Verma M, Friedl MA, Richardson AD, Kiely G, Cescatti A, Law BE, Wohlfahrt G, Gielen B, Roupsard O, Moors EJ, Toscano P, Vaccari FP, Gianelle D, Bohrer G, Varlagin A, Buchmann N, van Gorsel E, Montagnani L, Propastin P (2014) Remote sensing of annual terrestrial gross primary productivity from MODIS: an assessment using the FLUXNET La Thuile data set. Biogeosciences, 11, 2185–2200, doi: 10.5194/bg-11-2185-2014

Wu C, Gonsamo A, Gough CM, Chen JM, Xu S (2014) Modeling growing season phenology of North American forests using seasonal mean vegetation indices from MODIS. Remote Sensing of Environment, 147, 79–88, doi: 10.1016/j.rse.2014.03.001


Barr AG, Richardson AD, Hollinger DY, Papale D, Arain MA, Black TA, Bohrer G, Dragoni D, Fischer ML, Gu L, Law BE, Margolis HA, McCaughey JH, Munger JW, Oechel W, Schaeffer K (2013) Use of change-point detection for friction-velocity threshold evaluation in eddy-covariance studies. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 171, 31–45, doi: 10.1016/j.agrformet.2012.11.023

Detto M, Bohrer G, Goedhart-Nietz J, Maurer KD, Gough CM, Curtis PS (2013) Multi-variate conditional Granger causality analysis for lagged response of soil respiration in a temperate forest. Entropy, 15(10), 4266–4284, doi: 10.3390/e15104266

Fleischer K, Rebel K, van der Molen M, Erisman J, Wassen M, van Loon E, Montagnani L, Gough C, Herbst M, Janssens I, Gianelle D, Dolman A (2013) The contribution of nitrogen deposition to the photosynthetic capacity of forests. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 27(1), 187–199, doi: 10.1002/gbc.20026

Gough CM, Hardiman BS, Nave LE, Bohrer G, Maurer KD, Vogel CS, Nadelhoffer KJ, Curtis PS (2013) Sustained carbon uptake and storage following moderate disturbance in a Great Lakes forest. Ecological Applications, 23(5), 1202–1215, doi: 10.1890/12-1554.1

Hardiman BS, Bohrer G, Gough CM, Curtis PS (2013) Canopy structural changes following widespread mortality of canopy dominant trees. Forests, 4(3), 537–552, doi: 10.3390/f4030537

Hardiman BS, Gough CM, Halperin A, Hofmeister K, Nave LE, Bohrer G, Curtis PS (2013) Maintaining high rates of carbon storage in old forests: a mechanism linking canopy structure to forest function. Forest Ecology and Management, 298, 111–119, doi: 10.1016/j.foreco.2013.02.031

He L, Ivanov VY, Bohrer G, Thomsen JE, Vogel CS, Moghaddam M (2013) Temporal dynamics of soil moisture in a northern temperate mixed successional forest after a prescribed intermediate disturbance. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 180, 22–33, doi: 10.1016/j.agrformet.2013.04.014

Keenan TF, Hollinger DY, Bohrer G, Dragoni D, Munger JW, Schmid HP, Richardson AD (2013) Increase in forest water-use efficiency as atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations rise. Nature, 499(7458), 324–327, doi: 10.1038/nature12291

Maurer KD, Hardiman BS, Vogel CS, Bohrer G. (2013) Canopy-structure effects on surface roughness parameters: Observations in a Great Lakes mixed-deciduous forest. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 177, 24–34, doi: 10.1016/j.agrformet.2013.04.002

Melaas EK, Richardson AD, Dragoni D, Gough CM, Herbs M, Montagnani L, Moors E, and Friedl MA (2013) Using FLUXNET data to improve models of springtime vegetation activity onset in forest ecosystems, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 171, 46–56, doi: 10.1016/j.agrformet.2012.11.018

Nave LE, Nadelhoffer KJ, and Le Moine J, van Diepen LTA, Cooch JK, van Dyke NJ (2013) Nitrogen uptake by trees and mycorrhizal fungi in a successional northern temperate forest: insights from multiple isotopic methods. Ecosystems, 16(4), 590–603, doi: 10.1007/s10021-012-9632-1

Nave LE, Swanston CW, Mishra U, Nadelhoffer KJ (2013) Afforestation effects on soil carbon storage in the United States: a synthesis. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 77(3), 1035–1047, doi: 10.2136/sssaj2012.0236

Stoy PC, Dietze M, Richardson AD, Vargas R, Barr AG, Anderson RS, Arain MA, Baker IT, Black TA, Chen JM, Cook RB, Gough CM, Grant RF, Hollinger DY, Izaurralde C, Kucharik CJ, Lafleur P, Law BE, Liu S, Lokupitiya E, Luo Y, Munger JW, Peng C, Poulter B, Price DT, Ricciuto DM, Riley WJ, Sahoo AK, Schaefer K, Schwalm CR, Tian H, Verbeeck H, and Weng E (2013) Evaluating the agreement between measurements and models of net ecosystem exchange at different times and time scales using wavelet coherence: an example using data from the North American Carbon Program Site-Level Interim Synthesis. Biogeosciences, 10, 6893–6909, doi: 10.5194/bgd-10-3039-2013

Thomsen JE, Bohrer G, Matheny AM, Ivanov VY, He L, Renninger H, Schäfer KVR (2013) Contrasting hydraulic strategies during dry soil conditions in Quercus rubra and Acer rubrum in a sandy site in Michigan. Forests, 4, 1106–1120, doi: 10.3390/f4041106

Wu C, Chen JM, Black A, Desai AR, Gonsamo A, Jassal RS, Price DT, Gough CM, Dragoni D, Bohrer G, Herbst M, Gielen B, Berninger F, Kurz WA, Vesala T, Mammarella I, Pilegaard K, Blanken PS (2013) Interannual variability of net ecosystem productivity in forests is explained by carbon flux phenology in autumn. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 22(8), 994–1006, doi: 10.1111/geb.12044

Wu C, Gough CM, Chen JM, Gonsamo A (2013) Evidence of autumn phenology control on annual net ecosystem productivity in two temperate deciduous forests. Ecological Engineering, 60, 88–95, doi: 10.1016/j.ecoleng.2013.07.019


Garrity SR, Meyer K, Maurer KD, Hardiman BS, Bohrer G (2012) Estimating plot-level tree structure in a deciduous forest by combining allometric equations, spatial wavelet analysis and airborne LiDAR. Remote Sensing Letters, 3(5), 443–451, doi: 10.1080/01431161.2011.618814

Keenan T, Baker I, Barr A, Ciais P, Davis K, Dietze M, Dragoni D, Gough C, Grant R, Hollinger D, Hufkens K, Poulter B, McCaughey H, Raczka B, Ryu Y, Schaefer K, Tian H, Verbeeck H, Zhao M, Richardson A (2012) Terrestrial biosphere model performance for inter-annual variability of land-atmosphere CO2 exchange. Global Change Biology, 18(6), 1971–1987, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2012.02678.x

Lasslop G, Migliavacca M, Bohrer G, Reichstein M, Bahn M, Ibrom A, Jacobs C, Kolari P, Papale D, Vesala T, Wohlfahrt G, Cescatti A (2012) On the choice of the driving temperature for eddy-covariance carbon dioxide flux partitioning. Biogeosciences, 9(12), 5243–5259, doi: 10.5194/bg-9-5243-2012

Richardson AD, Anderson RS, Arain MA, Barr AG, Bohrer G, Chen G, Chen JM, Ciais P, Davis KJ, Desai AJ, Dietze MC, Dragoni D, Garrity SR, Gough CM, Grant R, Hollinger DY, Margolis HA, McCaughey H, Migliavacca M, Monson RK, Munger JW, Poulter B, Raczka BM, Ricciuto DM, Sahoo AK, Schaefer K, Tian H, Vargas R, Verbeeck H, Xiao J, Xue Y (2012) Terrestrial biosphere models need better representation of vegetation phenology: results from the North American Carbon Program site synthesis. Global Change Biology, 18(2), 566–584, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2011.02562.x

Schaefer K, Schwalm CR, Williams C, Arain MA, Barr A, Chen JM, Davis KJ, Dimitrov D, Hilton TW, Hollinger DY, Humphreys E, Poulter B, Raczka BM, Richardson AD, Sahoo A, Thornton P, Vargas R, Verbeeck H, Anderson R, Baker I, Black TA, Bolstad P, Chen JQ, Curtis PS, Desai AR, Dietze M, Dragoni D, Gough C, Grant RF, Gu LH, Jain A, Kucharik C, Law B, Liu SG, Lokipitiya E, Margolis HA, Matamala R, McCaughey JH, Monson R, Munger JW, Oechel W, Peng CH, Price DT, Ricciuto D, Riley WJ, Roulet N, Tian HQ, Tonitto C, Torn M, Weng ES, Zhou XL (2012) A model-data comparison of gross primary productivity: results from the North American Carbon Program site synthesis. Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences, 117, G03010, doi: 10.1029/2012JG001960

Sprintsin M, Chen JM, Desai A, Gough CM (2012) Evaluation of leaf-to-canopy upscaling methodologies against carbon flux data in North America. Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences, 117, G01023, doi: 10.1029/2010JG001407

Wang T, Brender P, Ciais P, Piao S, Mahecha MD, Chevallier F, Reichstein M, Ottlé C, Maignan F, Arain A, Bohrer G, Cescatti A, Kiely G, Law BE, Lutz M, Montagnani L, Moors E, Osborne B, Panferov O, Papale D, Vaccari FP (2012) State-dependent errors in a land surface model across biomes inferred from eddy covariance observations on multiple timescales. Ecological Modelling, 246, 11–25, doi: 10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2012.07.017

Wu C, Chen JM, Desai AR, Hollinger DY, Arain MA, Margolis HA, Gough CM, Staebler RM (2012) Remote sensing of canopy light use efficiency in temperate and boreal forests of North America using MODIS imagery. Remote Sensing of Environment, 118, 60–72, doi: 10.1016/j.rse.2011.11.012

Wu C, Chen JM, Kurz WA, Price DT, Lafleur PM, Jassal RS, Dragoni D, Bohrer G, Gough CM, Verma SB, Suyker AE, Munger JW (2012) Interannual and spatial impacts of phenological transitions, growing season length, and spring and autumn temperatures on carbon sequestration in North America. Global and Planetary Change, 92–93, 179–190, doi: 10.1016/j.gloplacha.2012.05.021

Yan H, Wang SQ, Billesbach D, Oechel W, Zhang JH, Meyers T, Martin TA, Matamala R, Baldocchi D, Bohrer G, Dragoni D, Scott R (2012) Global estimation of evapotranspiration using a leaf area index-based surface energy and water balance model. Remote Sensing of Environment, 124, 581–595, doi: 10.1016/j.rse.2012.06.004

Zhang F, Chen JM, Chen J, Gough CM, Martin T, Dragoni D (2012) Evaluating spatial and temporal patterns of MODIS GPP over the conterminous U.S. against flux measurements and a process model. Remote Sensing of Environment, 124, 717–729, doi: 10.1016/j.rse.2012.06.023


Dietze MC, Vargas R, Richardson AD, Stoy P, Barr AG, Anderson RS, Arain MA, Baker IT, Black TA, Chen JM, Flanagan LB, Gough CM, Grant RF, Hollinger D, Izaurralde C, Kucharik CJ, Lafleur P, Liu S, Lokupitiya E, Luo Y, Munger W J, Peng C, Poulter B, Price DT, Ricciuto DM, Riley WJ, Sahoo AK, Schaefer K, Tian H, Verbeeck H, Verma SB (2011) Characterizing the performance of ecosystem models across time scales: a spectral analysis of the North American Carbon Program site-level synthesis, Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences, 116, G04029, doi: 10.1029/2011JG001661

Garrity SR, Bohrer G, Maurer KD, Mueller KL, Vogel CS, Curtis PS (2011) A comparison of multiple phenology data sources for estimating seasonal transitions in deciduous forest carbon exchange. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 151(12), 1741–1752, doi: 10.1016/j.agrformet.2011.07.008

Hardiman, BS, Bohrer G, Gough CM, Vogel CS, Curtis PS (2011) The role of canopy structural complexity in wood net primary production of a maturing northern deciduous forest. Ecology, 92(9), 1818–1827, doi: 10.1890/10-2192.1

Lee X, Goulden ML, Hollinger DY, Barr A, Black TA, Bohrer G, Bracho R, Drake B, Goldstein A, Gu L, Katul G, Kolb T, Law BE, Margolis H, Meyers T, Monson R, Munger W, Oren O, Paw U KT, Richardson AD, Schmid HP, Staebler R, Wofsy S, Zhao L (2011) Observed increase in local cooling effect of deforestation at higher latitudes. Nature, 479, 384–387, doi: 10.1038/nature10588

Nave LE, Gough CM, Maurer KD, Bohrer G, Hardiman BS, Le Moine J, Munoz AB, Nadelhoffer KJ, Sparks JP, Strahm BD, Vogel CS, Curtis PS (2011) Disturbance and the resilience of coupled carbon and nitrogen cycling in a northern temperate forest. Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences, 116, G04016, doi: 10.1029/2011JG001758

Niu S, Luo Y, Fei S, Montagnani L, Bohrer G, Janssens I, Gielen B, Rambal S, Moors E, Matteucci G (2011) Seasonal hysteresis of net ecosystem exchange in response to temperature change: patterns and causes. Global Change Biology, 17(10), 3102–3114, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2011.02459.x

Richardson A, Anderson R, Arain MA, Barr A, Bohrer G, Chen G, Chen J, Ciais P, Davis K, Desai A, Dietze M, Dragoni D, El Maayar M, Garrity S, Gough C, Grant R, Hollinger D, Margolis H, McCaughey H, Migliavacca M, Monson R, Munger JW, Poulter B, Raczka B, Ricciuto D, Sahoo A, Schaefer K, Tian H, Vargas R, Verbeeck H, Xiao J, Xue Y (2011) Land surface models need better representation of vegetation phenology: results from the North American Carbon Program site synthesis, Global Change Biology, 18(2), 566–584, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2011.02562.x

Wang T, Ciais P, Piao SL, Ottlé C, Brender P, Maignan F, Arain MA, Cescatti A, Gianelle D, Gough CM, Gu L, Lafleur P, Laurila T, Marcolla B, Margolis H, Montagnani L, Moors E, Saigusa N, Vesala T, Wohlfahrt G, Koven C, Black T, Dellwik E, Don A, Hollinger D, Knohl A, Monson R, Munger J, Suyker A, Varlagin A, Verma S (2011) Controls on winter ecosystem respiration in temperate and boreal ecosystems. Biogeosciences, 8(7), 2009–2025, doi: 10.5194/bg-8-2009-2011

Xiao J, Zhuang Q, Law BE, Baldocchi DD, Chen J, Richardson AD, Melillo JM, Davis KJ, Hollinger DY, Wharton S, Oren R, Noormets A, Fischer ML, Verma SB, Cook DR, Sun G, McNulty S, Wofsy SC, Bolstad PV, Burns SP, Curtis PS, Drake BG, Falk M, Foster DR, Gu L, Hadley JL, Katul GG, Litvak M, Ma S, Martin TA, Matamala R, Meyers TP, Monson RK, Munger JW, Oechel WC, Paw UKT, Schmid HP, Scott RL, Starr G, Suyker AE, Torn MS (2011) Assessing net ecosystem carbon exchange of U.S. terrestrial ecosystems by integrating eddy covariance flux measurements and satellite observations. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 151(1), 60–69, doi: 10.1016/j.agrformet.2010.09.002

Yuan W, Luo Y, Liang S, Yu G, Niu S, Stoy P, Chen J, Desai AR, Lindroth A, Gough CM, Ceulemans R, Arain A, Bernhofer C, Cook B, Cook DR, Dragoni D, Gielen B, Janssens I, Longdoz B, Liu H, Lund M, Matteucci G, Moors E, Scott RL, Seufert G, and Varner R (2011) Thermal adaptation of net ecosystem exchange. Biogeosciences, 8(6), 1453–1463, doi: 10.5194/bg-8-1453-2011

Yuan W, Luo Y, Liu S, Yu G, Zhou T, Bahn M, Black A, Desai AR, Cescatti A, Marcolla B, Jacobs C, Chen J, Aurela M, Berhnofer C, Bielen B, Bohrer G, Cook DR, Dragoni D, Dunn AL, Gianelle D, Grünwald T, Ibrom A, Leclerc MY, Lindroth A, Liu H, Marchesini LB, Montagnani L, Pita G, Rodeghiero M, Rodrigues A, Starr G, Stoy PC (2011) Redefinition and global estimation of basal ecosystem respiration rate. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 25, GB4002, doi: 10.1029/2011GB00415


Gough CM, Flower CE, Vogel CS, Curtis PS (2010) Phenological and temperature controls on the temporal non-structural carbohydrate dynamics of Populus grandidentata and Quercus rubra. Forests, 1(1), 65–81, doi: 10.3390/f1010065

Gough, CM, Vogel CS, Hardiman B, Curtis PS (2010) Wood net primary production resilience in an unmanaged forest transitioning from early to middle succession. Forest Ecology and Management, 260(1), 36–41, doi: 10.1016/j.foreco.2010.03.027

Hollinger DY, Ollinger SV, Richardson AD, Meyers TP, Dail DB, Martin ME, Scott NA, Arkebauer TJ, Baldocchi DD, Clark KL, Curtis PS, Davis KJ, Desai AR, Dragoni D, Goulden ML, Gu L, Katul GG, Pallardy SG, Paw KT, Schmid HP, Stoy PC, Suyker AE, Verma SB (2010) Albedo estimates for land surface models and support for a new paradigm based on foliage nitrogen concentration. Global Change Biology, 16(2), 696–710, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2009.02028.x

Mueller KL, Yadav V, Curtis PS, Vogel C, Michalak AM (2010) Attributing the variability of eddy-covariance CO2 flux measurements across temporal scales using geostatistical regression for a mixed northern hardwood forest. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 24, GB3023, doi: 10.1029/2009GB003642

Vargas R, Baldocchi DD, Querejeta JI, Curtis PS, Hasselquist NJ, Janssens IA, Allen MF, Montagnani L (2010) Ecosystem CO2 fluxes of arbuscular and ectomycorrhizal dominated vegetation types are differentially influenced by precipitation and temperature. New Phytologist, 185(1), 226–236, doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2009.03040.x

Xiao JF, Zhuang QL, Law BE, Chen JQ, Baldocchi DD, Cook DR, Oren R, Richardson AD, Wharton S, Ma SY, Martini TA, Verma SB, Suyker AE, Scott RL, Monson RK, Litvak M, Hollinger DY, Sun G, Davis KJ, Bolstad PV, Burns SP, Curtis PS, Drake BG, Falk M, Fischer ML, Foster DR, Gu LH, Hadley JL, Katul GG, Roser Y, McNulty S, Meyers TP, Munger JW, Noormets A, Oechel WC, Paw KT, Schmid HP, Starr G, Torn MS, Wofsy SC (2010) A continuous measure of gross primary production for the conterminous United States derived from MODIS and AmeriFlux data. Remote Sensing of Environment, 114(3), 576–591, doi: 10.1016/j.rse.2009.10.013


Bohrer G, Katul GG, Walko RL, R Avissar (2009) Exploring the effects of microscale structural heterogeneity of forest canopies using large-eddy simulations. Boundary Layer Meteorology, 132(3), 351–382, doi: 10.1007/s10546-009-9404-4

Gough CM, Flower C, Vogel CS, Dragoni D, Curtis PS (2009) Whole-ecosystem labile carbon production in a north temperate deciduous forest, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 149(9), 1531–1540, doi: 10.1016/j.agrformet.2009.04.006

Nave LE, Vogel CS, Gough CM, Curtis PS (2009) Contribution of atmospheric nitrogen deposition to net primary productivity in a northern hardwood forest. Canadian Journal of Forest Research-Revue Canadienne De Recherche Forestiere, 39(6), 1108–1118, doi: 10.1139/X09-038

Roman MO, Schaaf CB, Woodcock CE, Strahler AH, Yang XY, Braswell RH, Curtis PS, Davis KJ, Dragoni D, Goulden ML, Gu LH, Hollinger DY, Kolb TE, Meyers TP, Munger JW, Privette JL, Richardson AD, Wilson TB, Wofsy SC (2009) The MODIS (Collection V005) BRDF/albedo product: assessment of spatial representativeness over forested landscapes. Remote Sensing of Environment, 113(11), 2476–2498, doi: 10.1016/j.rse.2009.07.009


Desai AR, Noormets AN, Bolstad PV, Chen J, Cook BD, Davis KJ, Euskirchen ES, Gough CM, Martin JM, Ricciuto DM, Schmid HP, Tang JW, Wang W (2008) Influence of vegetation and seasonal forcing on carbon dioxide fluxes across the Upper Midwest, USA: implications for regional scaling, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 148(2), 288–308, doi: 10.1016/j.agrformet.2007.08.001

Gough CM, Vogel CS, Schmid HP, Curtis PS (2008) Controls on annual forest carbon storage: lessons from the past and predictions for the future, BioScience, 58(7), 609–622, doi: 10.1641/B580708

Gough CM, Vogel CS, Schmid HP, Su H-B, Curtis PS (2008) Multi-year convergence of biometric and meteorological estimates of forest carbon storage, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 148(2), 158–170, doi: 10.1016/j.agrformet.2007.08.004

Noormets A, Desai AR, Cook BD, Euskirchen ES, Ricciuto DM, Davis KJ, Bolstad PV, Schmid HP, Vogel CS, Carey EV, Su HB, Chen J (2008) Moisture sensitivity of ecosystem respiration: comparison of 14 forest ecosystems in the Upper Great Lakes Region, USA. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 148(2), 216–230, doi: 10.1016/j.agrformet.2007.08.002

Su HB, Schmid HP, Grimmond CSB, Vogel CS, Curtis PS (2008) An assessment of observed vertical flux divergence in long-term eddy-covariance measurements over two Midwestern forest ecosystems. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 148(2), 186–205, doi: 10.1016/j.agrformet.2007.08.009


Gough CM, Vogel CS, Harrold K, George K, Curtis PS (2007a) The legacy of harvest and fire on ecosystem carbon storage in a north temperate forest. Global Change Biology, 13(9), 1935–1949, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2007.01406.x

Gough CM, Vogel CS, Kazanski C, Nagel L, Curtis PS (2007b) Coarse woody debris and the carbon balance of a north temperate forest. Forest Ecology and Management, 244(1–3), 60–67, doi: 10.1016/j.foreco.2007.03.039

Hogg A, Uddling J, Ellsworth D, Carroll MA, Pressley S, Lamb B, Vogel C (2007) Stomatal and non-stomatal fluxes of ozone to a northern mixed hardwood forest. Tellus, 59(3), 514–525, doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0889.2007.00269.x

Ortega J, Helmig D, Guenther A, Harley P, Pressley S, Vogel C (2007) Flux estimates and OH reaction potential of reactive biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) from a mixed northern hardwood forest. Atmospheric Environment, 41(26), 5479–5495, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.12.033


Baldocchi D, Falge E, Gu L, Olson R, Hollinger D, Running S, Anthoni P, Bernhofer Ch, Davis K, Fuentes J, Goldstein A, Katul G, Law B, Lee X, Mahli Y, Meyers T, Munger W, Oechel W, Paw KT, Pilegaard K, Schmid HP, Valentini R, Verma S, Vesala T, Wilson K, Wofsy S (2001) FLUXNET: a new tool to study the temporal and spatial variability of ecosystem-scale carbon dioxide, water vapor and energy flux densities. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 82(11), 2415–2434, doi: 10.1175/1520-0477(2001)0822.3.CO;2

Baldocchi DD, Black TA, Curtis P, Falge E, Fuentes JD, Granier A, Gu L, Knohl A, Pilegaard K, Schmid HP, Valentini R, Wilson K, Wofsy S, Xu L, Yamamoto S (2005) Predicting the onset of net carbon uptake by deciduous forests with soil temperature and climate data: a synthesis of FLUXNET data. International Journal of Biometeorology, 49(6), 377–387, doi: 10.1007/s00484-005-0256-4

Bovard BD, Curtis PS, Vogel CS, Su H-B, Schmid HP (2005) Environmental controls on sap flow in a northern hardwood forest. Tree Physiology, 25(1), 31–38. doi: 10.1093/treephys/25.1.31

Curtis PS, Hanson PJ, Bolstad P, Barford C, Randolph JC, Schmid HP, Wilson KB (2002) Biometric and eddy-covariance based estimates of ecosystem carbon storage in five eastern North American deciduous forests. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 113, 3–19, doi: 10.1016/S0168-1923(02)00099-0

Curtis PS, 2004, Biosphere-atmosphere interactions, New Phytologist, 162(1), 4–6, doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2004.01044.x

Curtis PS, Vogel CS, Gough CM, Schmid HP, Su H-B, Bovard BD (2005) Respiratory carbon losses and the carbon-use efficiency of a northern hardwood forest, 1999–2003. New Phytologist, 167(2), 437–456, doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2005.01438.x

Davidson EA, Savage K, Bolstad P, Clark DA, Curtis PS, Ellsworth DS, Hanson PJ, Law BE, Luo Y, Pregitzer KS, Randolph JC, Zak D (2002) Belowground carbon allocation in forests estimated from litterfall and IRGA-based soil respiration measurements. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 113, 39–51, doi: 10.1016/S0168-1923(02)00101-6

Ehman JL, Schmid HP, Grimmond CSB, Randolph JC, Hanson PJ, Wayson CA, Cropley FD (2002) An initial intercomparison of micrometeorological and ecological inventory estimates of carbon exchange in a mid-latitude deciduous forest, Global Change Biology, 8(6), 575–589, doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2486.2002.00492.x

Hibbard K, Law BE, Reichstein M, Sulzman J (2005) An analysis of soil respiration across northern hemisphere temperate ecosystems. Biogeochemistry, 73(1), 29–70, doi: 10.1007/s10533-004-2946-0

Kim J, Guo Q, Baldocchi DD, Leclerc MY, Xu L, Schmid HP (2006) Upscaling fluxes from tower to landscape: overlaying flux footprints on high resolution (IKONOS) images of vegetation cover. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 136(3–4), 132–146, doi: 10.1016/j.agrformet.2004.11.015

Kljun N, Rotach MW, Schmid HP (2002) A three-dimensional backward Lagrangian footprint model for a wide range of boundary-layer stratifications. Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 103(2), 205–226, doi: 10.1023/A:1014556300021

Kljun N, Calanca P, Rotach MW, Schmid HP (2004) A simple parameterisation for flux footprint predictions. Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 112(3), 503–523, doi: 10.1023/B:BOUN.0000030653.71031.96

Nave LE, Gough CM (2006) Quantifying ecological change using stable isotopes: digging deep into the past to predict the future. New Phytologist, 171(1), 3–5, doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2006.01782.x

Oliphant AJ, Grimmond CSB, Schmid HP, Wayson CA (2006) Local-scale heterogeneity of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), absorbed PAR and net radiation as a function of topography, sky conditions and leaf area index. Remote Sensing of Environment, 103(3), 324–337, doi: 10.1016/j.rse.2005.09.021

Oliphant AJ, Grimmond CSB, Zutter HN, Schmid HP, Su H-B, Scott SL, Offerle B, Randolph JC, Ehman J (2004) Heat storage and energy balance fluxes for a temperate deciduous forest. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 126(3–4), 185–201, doi: 10.1016/j.agrformet.2004.07.003

Pressley S, Lamb B, Westberg H, Vogel C (2006) Relationships among canopy scale energy fluxes and isoprene flux derived from long-term, seasonal eddy covariance measurements over a hardwood forest. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 136(3–4), 188–202, doi: 10.1016/j.agrformet.2004.11.013

Pressley S, Lamb B, Westberg H, Hatten G, Flaherty J, Chen J, Vogel C (2005) Long term isoprene flux measurements above a northern hardwood forest. Journal of Geophysical Research, 110(D7), D07301, doi: 10.1029/2004JD005523

Rahman AF, Cordova VD, Gamon JA, Schmid HP, Sims DA (2004) Potential of MODIS ocean bands for estimating CO2 flux from terrestrial vegetation: a novel approach. Geophysical Research Letters, 31(10), L10503, doi: 10.1029/2004GL019778

Rocha AV, Su H-B, Vogel CS, Schmid HP, Curtis PS (2004) Photosynthetic and water use efficiency responses to diffuse radiation by an aspen-dominated northern hardwood forest. Forest Science, 50(6), 793–801.

Schmid HP (2002) Footprint modeling for vegetation atmosphere exchange studies: a review and perspective. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 113(1–4), 159–183, doi: 10.1016/S0168-1923(02)00107-7

Schmid HP, Lloyd CR (1999) Spatial representativeness and the location bias of flux footprints over inhomogeneous areas. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 93(3), 195–209, doi: 10.1016/S0168-1923(98)00119-1

Schmid HP, Grimmond CSB, Cropley F, Offerle B, Su H-B (2000) Measurements of CO2 and energy fluxes over a mixed hardwood forest in the mid-western United States. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 103(4), 357–374, doi: 10.1016/S0168-1923(00)00140-4

Schmid HP, Su H-B, Vogel CS, Curtis PS, (2003) Ecosystem-atmosphere exchange of carbon dioxide over a mixed hardwood forest in northern lower Michigan. Journal of Geophysical Research, 108(D14), 4417, doi: 10.1029/2002JD003011

Su H-B, Schmid HP, Grimmond CSB, Vogel CS, Oliphant JA (2004) Spectral characteristics and correction of long-term eddy-covariance measurements over two mixed hardwood forests in non-flat terrain. Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 110(2), 213–253, doi: 10.1023/A:1026099523505

Villani MG, Schmid HP, Su H-B, Hutton JL, Vogel CS (2003) Turbulence statistics measurements in a northern hardwood forest. Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 108(3), 343–364, doi: 10.1023/A:1024118808670

Westberg H, Lamb B, Hafer R, Hills A, Shepson P, Vogel C (2001) Measurement of isoprene fluxes at the PROPHET site. Journal of Geophysical Research, 106(20), 24347–24358, doi: 10.1029/2000JD900735